Set out on this page are some of the events which occured during the period covered by my family histories for the years 1801 to 1900. This period includes the industrialisation of England & Europe, revolution, the rise of liberal ideas of democracy & government and the expansion of imperialism throughout the world, particularly by the English. The birth of the romantic period in art & music; gothic revival architecture and that truly English oddity, the Gilbert & Sullivan operetta! Italian opera reaches it full flowering with Verdi, Donizetti and others.
To go to a particular 5 year period click on the appropriate year below:
1805 |1810 |1815 |1820 |1825 |1830 |1835 |1840 |1845 |1850 |1855 |1860 |1865 |1870 |1875 |1880 |1885 |1890 |1895 |1900 |
Pictured on the left is one of the beautiful colour prints produced by the Japanese artist Ando Hiroshige (1797 - 1858), a master of the form. Norma & La Sonnambula by Bellini premiered in Milan. Johannes Brahms (1833 - 1897) born in Germany. Berlioz (pictured above)"Symphonie Fantastique" revised version. First London department store established by William Whitely. Building of the National Gallery, London started. Cholera pandemic begins in India and spreads to Russia, central Europe and Scotland. Foreign legion formed. Melbourne (Australia) founded in 1834.
Frederick William III dies and his son Frederick William IV becomes King of Prussia. Under Frederick William III my German/Prussian ancestors had great difficulties due to the Reform Church, supported by the state, demanding certain rites be performed with which their Pastors (members of the Lutheran Church) disagreed (known as the Agende). This lead to their persecution and eventual immigration to Australia beginning with the parishners of Pastors Kavel (pictured on the left) and Fritsche. The initial plan was to go to America or possibly Russia but through George Fife Angas in London, South Australia was the eventual destination. The irony is that Kavel & Fritsche had a falling out over the interpretation of some scripture about 20 or so years later and the church split into Evangelical Lutheran & Lutheran Church. This lasted for about 100 years when the two churches came together again (administratively) to form one Lutheran Church! Even so the various congregations oftened remained seperate so that there are often two churches in a small town. My ancestors included persons from both the Kavel and Fritsche congregations.
Rossini "Stabat Mater", Schumann 1st Symphony ("The Spring"), Glinka opera "Russlan & Ludmilla" performed in St Petersburg. Meyerbeer becomes Musical Director of the Royal Opera House, Berlin. Arthur Sullivan (1842 - 1900) born. Wagner, operas "Rienzi", "Tannhauser" & "The Flying Dutchman" performed in Dresden. Mendelsohnn music for "A Midsummer Nights Dream" performed in Potsdam - overture written 1826. New houses of parliament begun in London to replace the Palace of Westminster destroyed in a fire. Nelsons Column erected in Trafalgar Square with staue by E.H. Bailey. Turner paints "Rain, Steam & Speed" First artistic photo portraits produced by David O. Hill. Madelaine Church (pictured on left) in Paris completed.
The Propylaea in Munich is built by Franz Klenze. Gold is discovered in California and the rush begins. Brigham Young leads the Mormons from Nauvoo City to Utah where Salt Lake City is established. Balzac writes "La Cousine Bette", Longfellow writes "The Belfry of Bruges", George Sand (pseudo-name of Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin) (portrait on left) writes ""La Mare au diable". Chopin dies of consumption at the age of 39. He and George Sand had a long and stormy liasion. Dostoevsky writes, "Poor Folk", Thackery writes "Vanity Fair", Alexander Dumas writes "La Dame aux Camelias"
The National Portrait Gallery opened in London. Victoria Cross instituted by Queen Victoria. Longest bare knuckle fight in history takes place in Melbourne Australia lasting 6 hrs 15 minutes. 186 rounds. James Kelly VS Jack Smith. "Big Ben" hour bell installed in the clock tower (clock face pictured at left) of the Houses of Parliament, London. G.B. Shaw born (1856 - 1950) Financial and economic crisis in Europe due to speculation on US railroads. Sigmund Freud (1856 - 1939) born. Gounods opera "Faust" premiered in Paris. Re-building of the Ringstrasse begun in Vienna. Charles Darwin publishes "On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection". First practical internal combustion engine constructed by Lenoir. In the period 1851 - 1860: 424,000 Britons and 914,000 Irish emmigrate to the USA. Primitive form of typewriter devised in 1860.
Sir Gilbert Scott designs the Albert Memorial built between 1872 & 1876. Restored at great cost in 2000 (Central elements pictured on left showing statue of the prince under a canopy - memorial not shown in full) Queen Victoria builds Sandringham House in Norfolk. Literature published - Tolstoy: "War & Peace"; Dickens: "Great Expectations": Mrs Henry wood: "East Lynne"; Victor Hugo "Les Miserables": Lewis Carroll "Alices Adventures in Wonderland". W.M Thakeray dies aged 51yrs. Sarah Bernhardt makes her debut at the Comedie Francais in Paris in "Iphigenie en Aulide".
Brooklyn Bridge in New York, (pictured at left) is opened. Gunsmith firm of E. Remington and Son begin production of typewriters. Excavations begin at Olympia in Greece underwritten by the German Government. Osteopathy founded by A. T. Still in Kansas, USA.
Bayreuth Festspielhaus opens (pictured at left) with the first complete performance of Wagners "Ring des Niberlungen". Brahms Symphony No 1 premiered. Delibes "Sylvia" ballet. Ponchielli opera "La Gioconda" premiered in Milan. Camille Saint-Saens opera "Samson & Delilah" performed in Weimar. Tchaikovsky "Francesco da Rimini" syphonic poem. Gilbert & Sullivan "HMS Pinafore". George Grove, Dictionary of Music and Musicians published. Suppe opera "Boccaccio" in Vienna. Laveran discovers Malarial parasite. David Hughes invents the microphone. Iodoform first used as an antiseptic. Saccharin discovered by Fahlberg & Remser. The game of Bingo developed from the Italian lotto game, (Tombola) Edison invents phonograph. Graham Bell invents telephone. Robert Koch discovers anthrax bacillus. First tennis championships held at Wimbledon. World exhibitions held in Philadelphia and Paris. Famine in Bengal. Electric street lighting introduced in London.
Casino designed by Garnier in Monte Carlo. Rodin sculpture "John the Baptist" and "The Thinker". Manet painting "Nana", Renoir painting "Le moulin de la Galette", The Canoeists Luncheon" (pictured on left) and "Place Clichy". William Morris "The decorative Arts". Cezanne painting "Chateau de Medan". Cologne cathedral completed (begun in 1248). Helen Keller (1880 - 1968) deaf & blind educator born.
The British fight the Boers over the Transvaal and are defeated at Majuba Hill. This leads to the treaty of Pretoria in which Britain recognises independent Transvaal Republic. Paul Kruger becomes President of South African Republic. Political parties founded in Japan. Austria & Serbia sign a treaty of alliance. Prince Milan Obrenovich proclaims himself king of Serbia. Troubles in Ireland with the imprisonment of Parnell by the British. Assasinations and massacres take place in Dublin & Maamtrasne. The 3 mile limit for territorial waters is agreed in the Hague. British occupy Cairo. Tunis becomes a French protectorate and eventually is fully controlled by France. Triple alliance formed between Italy, Austria & Germany. (Renewed in 1891 for a further 12 years) US Civil service is to be reformed and this is completed by 1901. The last male Bourbon heir to the French throne Comt de Chambord, dies. In the Sudan General Gordon (see photo above) reaches Khartoum where the Mahdi refuses to negotiate and occupies Omdurman. The Mahdi takes Khartoum and Gordon is killed in the fighting. The British evacuate Sudan. In Africa the european powers start the carve up of the continent after the Berlin conference of 14 nations. Leopold of Belgium makes the Congo his personal possession. Germany annexes Tanganyika & Zanzibar and areas of South West Africa. Britain establishes protectorates over Bechuanaland and the Niger River region. Convention established on the Transvaal.
Books published: Henry James "Portrait of a Lady"; R.L. Stevenson "Treasure Island"; Mark Twain "Hucklebery Finn"; Ibsen "The Wild Duck", Richard Burton "The Arabian Nights". Savoy Theatre opened by D'Oyle Carte. (1929 art deco refurbishment pictured on left) The theatre was one of the first to be lit with electric light. Composers: Rimsky Korsakov "The Snow Maiden"; Johannes Brahms (pictured above as a young man) "Academic Festival Overture" & "Symphonies Nos.3 & 4"; Massenet "Manon"; Tchaikovsky "1812 Overture"; Gilbert & Sullivan "Iolanthe", "The Pirates of Penzance"; Wagner "Parsifal"; Chabrier "Espanol" rhapsody; Delibes "Lakme".. Berlin Philharmonis & the London Royal College of Music founded.
Sir Charles Parsons invents 1st practical steam turbine engine. Karl Benz builds single-cyliner motor car engine. Louis Pasteur devises rabies vaccine to cure hydrophobia. Hiram S. Maxim patents recoil-operated machine gun. Flogging abolished in the British forces. St Gotthard tunnel completed. City populations in millions: London 3.3, New York 1.2, Berlin 1.1, Vienna 1, Tokyo .8, St Petersberg .6m. Queen Victoria gives Epping Forest to the nation. Bismark introduces sickness insurance in Germany. First run of the Orient Express from Paris to Istanbul (1895 poster pictured on right). First deep tube underground in London. Golf introduce to the USA by John M. Fox. Born in this period - Harry S. Truman, Clement Atlee, Franklin Roosevelt, Kemel Ataturk.
Books published - Henry James, "The Bostonians"; R.L. Stevenson, "Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde" & "The Master of Ballantre"; Frances H. Burnett, "Little Lord Fauntleroy"; Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, "The Woman in Scarlet" (fisrt of the Sherlock Holmes novels); Oscar Wilde, "The Happy Prince and other Tales" & "The Portrait of Dorian Gray". Composers - John Stainer, "The Crucifixion"; Verdi, "Otello", Gilbert & Sullivan, "The Gondoliers", "Yeoman of the Guard", "Ruddigore"; Richard Strauss, "Don Juan"; Rimsky-Korsakov, "Sheherazade"; Cesar Franck, "Symphony in D"; Borodin, "Prince Igor"; Art - Statue of Liberty dedicated; Max Klinger, "Beethoven sculpture", Van Gogh, (self portraits above left) "The Yellow Chair", "Landscape with Cypress Trees"; Cezanne "The Card Players".
Art - Art Nouveau appears in Europe (pictured on left -poster, Laurel 1897), Aubrey Beardsley "drawings for Oscar Wilde's Salome", the painters Monet beginds his series of pictures on the Rouen Cathedral (1892 - 1895), Lautrec the Moulin Rouge painting & Degas "Femme a sa toilette" (Woman at her toilet). Science - Karl Benz constructs his 4 wheel car. Henry Ford builds his first car (1893). Louise Lumiere invents the cinematograph and with Auguste invent the motion-picture camera. Machine to liquefy air devised by C. von Linde. Yersin & Kitasato independently discover plague bacilus. Wilhelm Rontgen discovers X-rays.